The New Republic has an article by Steven Pinker that investigates the psychology, neuroscience and cultural significance of swearing.
Swearing isn’t just of interest to cognitive scientists for its day-to-day uses. We’ve known for many years that swearing holds a special place in the brain because of how neurological damage affects language abilities.
For most people, language is heavily reliant on the left hemisphere of the brain and extensive damage to this area can so severely impair speech that both expressing and understanding language becomes near impossible (a condition known as ‘global aphasia‘).
However, patients with this sort of profound language impairment can often still swear like troopers.
Swearing seems to be much more associated with the right hemisphere, probably as the words are much more heavily emotional and so rely more on the various emotion networks in this side of the brain.
Pinker, of course, has a wide-ranging interest in language and discusses not only the neural basis for swearing, but the bizarre place it holds in our culture, as well as what it reveals about the structure of language itself.
When used judiciously, swearing can be hilarious, poignant, and uncannily descriptive. More than any other form of language, it recruits our expressive faculties to the fullest: the combinatorial power of syntax; the evocativeness of metaphor; the pleasure of alliteration, meter, and rhyme; and the emotional charge of our attitudes, both thinkable and unthinkable. It engages the full expanse of the brain: left and right, high and low, ancient and modern. Shakespeare, no stranger to earthy language himself, had Caliban speak for the entire human race when he said, “You taught me language, and my profit on’t is, I know how to curse.”
As an aside, once, whilst drinking with a psycholinguist (say that after a few pints) I was taught a useful way of quickly working out the stressed syllable in any English word – something which is apparently called the ‘fuck test’.
Simply insert the word ‘fucking’ into the word, as if you were using the swear word for emphasis, and the syllable that follows the ‘fucking’ is the stressed syllable.
For example, absolutely -> abso-fucking-lutely. The stressed syllable is the third: i.e. absolutely. It works for every multi-syllable word I’ve found so far.
Which just goes to show that psycholinguists are some of the coolest melonfarmers in the whole of cognitive science.
Link to New Republic article ‘What the F***?’.
7 thoughts on “WTF? Pinker on swearing”
The insertion of a word into another is known as “tmesis”.
You gain points by your more-than-obscure second generation REPO MAN reference.
I mean, of course, ‘melonfarmer’- when REPO MAN aired on cable, ‘melonfarmer’ was, amusingly, the dubbed substitution for ‘motherfucker.’
Words I’ve found (so far), for which the test fails.
any word stressing the first syllable (activated, mechanism, variable)
Not sure why you think the test fails for the words you list?
al-fucking-uminum works for the american pronunciation and spelling or
alu-fucking-minium for the english pronunciation and spelling,
Kelly, also the words you list as stressing the first syllable, actually don’t:
activated (actiVATed) acti-fucking-vated
mechanism (mechanISM) mechan-fucking-ism
variable (variABLE) vari-fucking-able
I say (maybe I’m odd?):
inSUFferable (but I’d say inSUFfer-fucking-able)
aLUminum (but alu-fucking-inum)
As well as:
(those three which I got from a phonics site discussing multi-syllable words with first syllable stressed — so at least that writer agrees with my pronuncifuckingation, another word that doesn’t work for me)
Of course, now I have to go look them up:
nƒì-ƒÉn’d…ôr-th√¥l (stress on 2)
mƒÉn’…ô-fƒï-stƒÅ’sh…ôn (stress on 4)
ƒ≠k-str√¥r’dn-ƒïr ƒì (stress on 2)
mƒÉg n…ô-fƒ≠-kƒÅ’sh…ôn (stress on 4)
mƒïk’…ô-nƒ≠z …ôm (stress on 1)
v√¢r’ƒì-…ô-b…ôl (stress on 1)
It looks like I say these in the normal way to me. Some of them do have secondary accents; perhaps that’s what you are hearing.
I really wonder at the stresses Melanie asserts in her second comment, but I agree with most of her first: NeANderthal, but no way *Ne-fucking-anderthal. I think your generalization often fails when the stressed syllable begins with a vowel, especially one on hiatus.