Twenty years, one Saturday

If you’re in the UK this Saturday, London’s Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience is celebrating 20 years of peering into the brain with an all-day £5 conference that gathers leading researchers to cover everything from the neuroscience of cannabis to embodied cognition.

By looking at the talks (warning: pdf format programme), it seems they’re pitched half way between BBC documentary and academic talk, so if you are suitably caffeinated, they should perfectly hit the spot.

You can buy tickets online but if you’re not walking through central London trying to pipe energy drinks directly into your bloodstream at 9.30am on Saturday, you can watch it via a livestream which is being hosted on the information superhighway.

Can’t wait.

 

Link to Mind the Brain conference details.

Suzanne Corkin has left the building

Neuropsychologist Suzanne Corkin, most well known for her work with profoundly amnesic patient HM, has passed away and The New York Times has a fitting obituary and tribute.

Although Corkin did a range of work on memory, including testing various medications to treat Alzheimer’s disease, she is in many ways synonymous with amnesic Patient HM, later revealed to be Henry Molaison, who she studied and worked with for most of both of their lives.

Corkin not only took a scientific interest in HM, she also ensured his well-being and appropriate care.

HM had perhaps one of the profoundest amnesias reported in the scientific literature but there is a lovely description in The New York Times obituary that describes how HM formed an emotional memory of Corkin, even though a conscious memory wasn’t present.

But it was her relationship with H.M. that was defining. His profound deficits made their relationship anything but normal — every time she walked in the room, she had to reintroduce herself — but that repetition bred a curious bond over time.

“He thought he knew me from high school,” Dr. Corkin said in an interview with The New York Times in 2008.

 

Link to Suzanne Corkin obituary in The NYT.

Spike activity 28-05-2016

Quick links from the past week in mind and brain news:

One of the earliest hominin constructions ever found hundreds of metres deep into a cave. Fascinating piece in The Atlantic.

Aeon has a fascinating piece on how we come to have knowledge of our own minds.

PET brain metabolism linked to return of consciousness in vegetative state patients. The ‘predict’ headline on the article is a bit misleading in everyday terms – it’s only one study so not good enough evidence to make clinical predictions – but fascinating work covered by Stat.

The Guardian has a piece on psychology’s study pre-registration revolution.

ABC Radio’s The Science Show has an excellent hour-long tribute to Oliver Sacks – in his own words.

How do we choose a romantic partner? Interesting review of studies from The Conversation.

Social Minds has a fascinating post on arguing that it’s about time we identified cognitive phenotypes for the social deficits in autism.

The science of the Psychoactive Drugs Act

The world’s stupidest drugs law, the Psychoactive Drugs Act, has come into effect in the UK last week and it claims to prohibit the creation and supply of all psychoactive substances not already covered by pre-existing drugs laws.

Apart from taking us further down the futile road of prohibition it is premised on something that’s scientifically impossible – testing if a seized drug is psychoactive from looking at its chemical structure.

The government claimed that they had ‘solved’ this problem and they’ve just released their forensic strategy document which, unsurprisingly, doesn’t actually solve it.

What it does do, however, is worthy of attention as it likely raises a whole new set of problems.

We learn from the forensic strategy that the test for ‘psychoactivity’ is to submit mystery substances to receptor binding assays – a lab test where the substance is added to cells ‘in a dish’ which have receptors for certain neurotransmitters to see if substances bind to and activate the receptors.

Your brain has many, many different forms of receptors, so the government has defined a list that will supposedly indicate whether a substance is ‘psychoactive’ based on whether a substance binds to and activates one of the following:

  • CB1 (targeted by cannabis and synthetic cannabinoid type drugs)
  • GABAA (targeted by benzodiazepine type drugs)
  • 5HT2A (targeted by hallucinogenic type drugs – these can be from a number of different types of drugs)
  • NMDA (targeted by dissociative/hallucinogenic drugs e.g. ketamine)
  • µ-opioid (targeted by opioid drugs e.g. heroin) and
  • monoamine transporters (targeted by stimulant drugs e.g. MDMA, cocaine).

These are indeed receptors that facilitate some of the major recreational drug groups but this is not an adequate definition of ‘psychoactivity’ not least because there are several psychoactive substances that don’t affect these receptors.

Most notable is long-running ‘legal high’ salvia divinorum which is wildly hallucinogenic but has its effect through the non-listed κ-opioid receptor.

So produce a lab-based tweak on the salvinorin A molecule, the ‘active ingredient’ in Salvia, and you have something that won’t be picked up by government tests.

The main problem though, is likely to be that these tests will be over-inclusive. Lots of substances will activate these receptors without having a psychoactive effect.

For example, epinastine is a drug in eye drops that strongly activates the 5HT2A in the lab but which doesn’t have a psychoactive effect because it doesn’t cross the blood-brain barrier.

Acamprosate is a drug used to treat alcoholism, not typically considered to be psychoactive, and yet activates GABAA receptors.

There are many more examples and they’re not hard to track down – mainly because we now have several open databases of drugs and receptor interactions so you can easily find psychoactive drugs that will screen negative or non psychoactive ones that will be falsely detected as mind-altering.

In practice, what this means is that lots of substances – chemicals from the home, the workshop, the lab, and the pharmacy – may screen for ‘psychoactivity’ but not be psychoactive. False positives, in other words.

But this approach also shows that the Psychoactive Drugs Act fails at solving the problem it is meant to overcome: underground labs producing new substances faster than they can be added to a list of banned drugs.

The Act just complements a fixed list of banned drugs with a fixed list of banned drug effects – making it just another target for grey market labs to innovate around.

What’s also interesting from the list is what drug effects are not proscribed – and we can probably expect underground innovation in pure D2 dopamine agonists that don’t affect monoamine transporters for uppers, and antihistamines as downers, among others. Although to be honest, most will likely just keep on using the same substances.

But considering that the biggest take home from ‘legal highs’ is that they were much worse for your health than ‘illegal highs’ – perhaps the best public health result we can hope for is that the Psychoactive Drugs Act pushes recreational drug users back to using the less harmful classics – speed, MDMA, weed and so on.

And when that’s the best you can hope for, you really know that your drug laws are in a dismal state.

A new wave of interrogation

Wired has an excellent article that tracks the development of police interrogation techniques from the dark days of physical violence, to the largely hand-me-down techniques depicted in classic cop shows, to a new era of interrogation developed and researched in secret.

It’s probably one of the best pieces you’ll read on interrogation psychology for, well, a very long time, because they don’t come around very often. This one is brilliantly written.

One key part tracks the influence of still-secret interrogation techniques from the US Government’s High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group or HIG as they have filtered through from the ‘war on terror’ to civilian law enforcement.

In 2010, to make good on a campaign promise that he would end the use of torture in US terror investigations, President Obama announced the formation of the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group, a joint effort of the FBI, the CIA, and the Pentagon. In place of the waterboarding and coercion that took place at facilities like Abu Ghraib during the Bush years, the HIG was created to conduct noncoercive interrogations. Much of that work is top secret. HIG-trained interrogators, for instance, are said to have questioned would-be Times Square bomber Faisal Shahzad and convicted Boston Marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. The public knows nothing about how those interrogations, or the dozen or so others the HIG is said to have conducted, unfolded. Even the specific training methods the HIG employs—and that it has introduced to investigators in the Air Force, Navy, and elsewhere—have never been divulged.

At the same time, however, the HIG has become one of the most powerful funders of public research on interrogations in America.

A fascinating and compelling read.

 
Linked to Wired article on the new wave of interrogation.

Reconstructing through altered states

Yesterday, I had the pleasure of doing a post-screening Q&A with the film-makers of an amazing documentary called My Beautiful Broken Brain.

One of the many remarkable things about the documentary is that one of the film-makers is also the subject, as she began making the film a few days after her life-threatening brain injury.

The documentary follows Lotje Sodderland who experienced a major brain haemorrhage at the age of 34.

She started filming herself a few days afterwards on her iPhone, initially to make sense of her suddenly fragmented life, but soon contacted film-maker Sophie Robinson to get an external perspective.

It’s interesting both as a record of an emotional journey through recovery, but also because Lotje spent a lot of time working with a special effects designer to capture her altered experience of the world and make it available to the audience.

I also really recommend a long-form article Lotje wrote about her experience of brain injury for The Guardian.

It’s notable because it’s written so beautifully. But Lotje told me she while she had regained the ability to write and type after her injury, she has been left unable to read. So the whole article was written through a process of typing text and getting Siri on her iPhone to read it back to her.

The documentary is available on Netflix.
 

Link to My Beautiful Broken Brain on Wikipedia.
Link to full documentary on Netflix.
Link to long-form article in The Guardian.

Spike activity 13-05-2016

Quick links from the past week in mind and brain news:

A new paper by AI experts explores the construction of dangerous artificial intelligence. TechRepublic covers the latest step in the inevitable march towards bunker humanity.

“Brain-dead patients have served as research subjects for decades”. Interesting piece in Discover Magazine.

Neuroskeptic has started to produce videos and this is excellent: The Myth of the Brain.

There’s a crowdfunding campaign to make episode 3 of a cyberpunk / sociology of neuroscience queer porn movie. Looping effect? No, I just lost my concentration for a second.

BBC Future has an excellent piece on the hearing voices movement approach to living with hallucinated voices.

There’s an insightful piece on the changing history of names and concepts of intellectual disability in The New York Times.

The Atlantic has a sensible take on the ‘genetics of staying in school’ study and what it does, and doesn’t tell us.

Somewhat awkward title but Science News has a piece on how Bayesian approaches to cognitive science are helping us understand psychopathology.