Mind Hacks

Open Science Essentials: pre-registration

Open Science essentials in 2 minutes, part 1

The Problem

As a scholarly community we allowed ourselves to forget the distinction between exploratory vs confirmatory research, presenting exploratory results as confirmatory, presenting post-hoc rationales as predictions. As well as being dishonest, this makes for unreliable science.

Flexibility in how you analyse your data (“researcher degrees of freedom“) can invalidate statistical inferences.

Importantly, you can employ questionable research practices like this (“p-hacking“) without knowing you are doing it. Decide to stop an analysis because the results are significant? Measure 3 dependent variables and use the one that “works”? Exclude participants who don’t respond to your manipulation? All justified in exploratory research, but mean you are exploring a garden of forking paths in the space of possible analysis – when you arrive at a significant result, you won’t be sure you got there because of the data, or your choices.

The solution

There is a solution – pre-registration. Declare in advance the details of your method and your analysis: sample size, exclusion conditions, dependent variables, directional predictions.

You can do this

Pre-registration is easy. There is no single, universally accepted, way to do it.

You should do this

Why do this?

Further reading

 

Addendum 14/11/17

As luck would have it, I stumbled across a bunch of useful extra resources in the days after publishing this post

Cross-posted on at tomstafford.staff.shef.ac.uk.  Part of a series aimed at graduate students in psychology. Part 2: The Open Science Framework