The cover story in December 5th’s Newsweek is available online and tackles the science and treatment of anorexia, focusing particularly on why it seems to be increasingly prevalent in children as young as eight.
At a National Institute of Mental Health conference last spring, anorexia’s youngest victims were a small part of the official agenda‚Äîbut they were the only thing anyone talked about in the hallways, says David S. Rosen, a clinical faculty member at the University of Michigan and an eating-disorder specialist. Seven years ago “the idea of seeing a 9- or 10-year-old anorexic would have been shocking and prompted frantic calls to my colleagues. Now we’re seeing kids this age all the time,” Rosen says. There’s no single explanation for the declining age of onset, although greater awareness on the part of parents certainly plays a role. Whatever the reason, these littlest patients, combined with new scientific research on the causes of anorexia, are pushing the clinical community‚Äîand families, and victims‚Äîto come up with new ways of thinking about and treating this devastating disease.
Unfortunately, the article has a somewhat oversimplified account of psychiatrist Walter Kaye’s recent research review and hypothesis about anorexia: that starvation might be a response to a disturbed serotonin system, particularly to high levels at areas in the brain with the serotonin 5HT1A receptor – a system particularly linked to anxiety and obsessiveness.
Starvation might be a response to these effects, as it is known to lower trytophan and steroid hormone metabolism, which, in turn, might reduce serotonin levels at these critical sites and, hence, ward off anxiety.
Importantly, the effects on serotonin levels are often restricted to certain brain areas. Furthermore, studies on a different type of serotonin receptor, the 5HT2A, actually suggest a decrease in serotonin activity at this type of receptor.
Kaye also suggests that disturbance to the serotonin system may arise owing to a combination of genetics, puberty-related hormone changes, stress and cultural pressures – not just a “brain disease”, as one psychiatrist is quoted as saying.
The article does, however, report moving accounts of individuals and families affected by the condition, and contains links to a podcast, including interviews with clinicians and researchers.